Back to the Future, The Black Hole Paradox and the Tao

In the classic 1985 film “Back to the Future”, Steven Spielberg tells the story of Marty McFly who goes back in time and mistakenly meets his mother who falls for him. This creates the possibility that his father and mother will not get together, thus, wiping out his existence because he would never be born. This is a classical time travel paradox leading many to believe that traveling into the past is impossible.

But for some scientists who do believe time travel into the past is possible have proposed that Black Holes might be using a process where quantum information is being teleportated  from the future to create a physical event in the past.

The concept of a Black Hole was predicted by General Relativity and through the work of Karl Schwarzschild who developed a model called the Schwarzschild Radius, proposed a new type of object in the universe where its mass becomes so dense its gravitational field would create a boundary where matter or light could not escape. This boundary later became known as the “Event Horizon”.

Inside a Black Hole exist what is called a gravitational singularity which is described as,

” the quantities that are used to measure the gravitational field become infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system. These quantities are the scalar invariant curvatures of spacetime, which includes a measure of the density of matter.” – wikipedia.org

However, there are some parts of a Black Hole that don’t follow our current understandings of physics. For example, what happens to the quantum information of matter when it enters the singularity.

In the 1970’s Steven Hawking answered this question when he discovered that Black Holes emitted heat which later became known as  “Hawking Radiation”. Hawking created a controversy when he stated in his paper that this radiation didn’t preserved the physical information of the mass within the Black Hole. If Hawking was right and this quantum information was forever lost within the singularity then this violated a quantum principle that information is always preserved within its wave function.

Others physicists such as Leonard Susskind argued this fact with Hawking and continued the controversy for twenty years because they believed,

” if the material entering the black hole were a pure quantum state, the transformation of that state into a mixed state of Hawking radiation would destroy information about the original quantum state. This violates Liouville’s theorem and presents a physical paradox. – wikipedia.org

In 1982, Jacob Bekenstein proposed a new theory where the quantum information of the mass within the Black Hole was proportional to the surface area of the event horizon. This new theory led to the Holographic Principle developed by Gerald ‘Hooft and latter refined by Dr. Leonard Susskind where the physical information of the mass of the Black Hole was equivalent to the information contained within its two dimensional surface area of the event horizon.

Another way to look at this holographic theorem is to view processes that are happening on the event horizon and the state of matter in the Black Hole are complementarity or just two ways of observing the same quantum information.

“The idea is as follows; a quantum gravity theory in the interior of an anti-de-sitter spacetime is completely equivalent to an ordinary quantum particle theory living on the boundary. If true, this equivalence means that we can use quantum particle theory (which is relatively well understood) to define quantum gravity theory (which is not).” – Juan Maldacena – Illusion of Gravity 2005

(Note: If you want to understand how string theory, Ads/CFT correspondence and the Holographic Principle is applied to our universe read the November 2005 article in Scientific American called “The Illusion of Gravity” by Dr. Juan Maldacena).

Leonard Susskind and Gerard ‘Hooft applied the Holographic Principle to the Black Hole Information Paradox by describing this as a complementarity process because it allows a set of quantum information to exist in two different forms even if one exists in another place in time. This is consistent with quantum mechanics because  time is viewed as a continuum where future and past behavior of particles are all held within its wave function. This complementarity analogy is similar to how we understand the wave/particle phenomenon of light where it can be viewed within either of these two states but never both simultaneously.

This wasn’t a complete solution to the paradox because we still needed a way to avoid the loss of quantum information due to the Black Hole’s singularity. A solution to this problem was proposed by Gary Horowitz and Juan Maldacena called the The Black Hole Final State” .

“We propose that at the black hole singularity one needs to impose a unique final state boundary condition. More precisely, we have a unique final wave function for the interior of the black hole. … This final boundary condition makes sure that no information is “absorbed” by the singularity. … The final state boundary condition at the black hole singularity acts like a measurement that collapses the state into one associated with the infalling matter. This transfer the information to the outgoing Hawking radiation in a process similar to “quantum teleporation”. – Horowitz and Maldacena 2005.

Dr. Seth Lloyd of MIT who specializes in Mechanical Engineering and Quantum Computing explained this process of Black Hole evaporation similar to the process of a quantum computer.

“If information escapes as black holes evaporate, then black holes could function as quantum computers. Recently, Horowitz and Maldacena proposed a model of black-hole evaporation that imposes a final-state boundary condition at the black-hole singularity. The resulting projection onto a final state gives rise to a nonlinear time evolution for the quantum states in and outside of the black-hole, which permits quantum information to escape form the black hole by a process akin to teleportation.” – Almost Certain Escape from Black Hole in Final State Projection – Seth Lloyd 2006

(Reference – see – quantum teleportation)

Dr. Lloyd uses this quantum teleportation model within the Black Hole evaporation process to explain as these particles reach this boundary their wave function collapses which teleports its current quantum information into the past through emerging particles or singlets at the event horizon which produces Hawking Radiation. This ability to project quantum information backwards in time is explained by Seth Lloyd theory called Projective Closed Time-like Curves. – Almost Certain Escape from Black Hole in Final State Projection – Seth Lloyd 2006

The physics is made through the possibility of using Closed Time-Like Curves within our universe in a lecture he gave in November 2004. Kurt Godel first came up with this concept through working with Albert Einstein at Princeton. And later in 1991 physicist David Deutsch used this concept to propose using Closed Time-like Curves to travel into the past, where according to his theory would create a new alternate version of the past which agreed with the concepts of the “many worlds” hypothesis of time travel developed by Hugh Everett. (Note: Dr. Lloyd’s theory differs from David Duetsch proposal by not creating alternate time lines).

According to modern physics the creation of Closed Time-like Curves are possible in rotating closed spheres. The classic way of visualizing these closed time-like curves is to picture the universe like a cup and the handle would represent the closed time-like curve which is the pathway from the future into the past.

In the bottom picture, Lloyd proposes a Projective Closed Time-like Curves similar to Quantum Teleportation which he proposed is taking place within Black Holes. He describes this process as a quantum channel where information is teleported between two qubits. This type of post selection quantum channel prevents time travel paradoxes because the quantum teleportation process between the two qubits disallows a mixed quantum state to occur, such as, starting out alive in the future and dead in the past.

Below is a video where Dr. Lloyd gave a lecture on this subject matter. (Note, this video is not for novices for he is talking to mostly Quantum Computing graduates students).

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(Note: the following are my own personal views on the nature of reality)

For a moment, lets assume our universe doesn’t contain Dark Matter and we live in anti-de-sitter space which has the characteristics of a Singularity. Then what is the Singularity? Physics defines it as a infinitely curved space.

However, if gravity is a illusion as Dr. Maldacena proposes then understanding how the Singularity functions is the key to understanding our reality. An example of this type of space is depicted in M.C.Escher print called Circle Limit III. Escher created a visual representation of a type of mathematics called  Hyperbolic Geometry where a negative curvature expands infinitely at the edges of a sphere.

In the picture below, Daina Tamina used crocheting to create geometric hyperbolic planes that are very similar to coral reefs.

Another mathematical concept that nature uses is the science of fractals which can form into simple or complex objects due to their ability to repeat self-similar patterns continuously into smaller and smaller scales like Escher Circle Limit III.

Another clue of the singularity is the observation that have perplexed scientist, is the negligible effect of gravity at the quantum scale.

To maintain this astronomical model, scientist have speculated that our galaxy is surrounded by dark matter which explains how gravity can hold all the matter together over million of light years, especially in its outer spiral arms. Astrophysicist call this the Dark Matter Halo (simulated picture above) which the theory explains why the rotational curve of the galaxy doesn’t decrease from the galactic center.

If this dark matter isn’t confirmed, at some point, astrophysics will need to stop coming up with exotic matter/forces to keep there standard model intact and come up with a more reasonable theory. Thus, lets try another approach and assume Einstein’s view of gravity as a curvature of space-time in the present of mass is a good observational model but isn’t the source for gravity.

Then, what is the gravitic force which holds galaxies and solar systems together?

Before General Relativity, science explained gravity through Issac Newton theory which states,

Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. The force is proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.” – Wikipedia.org

When you examine this formula, it is very close to “Columb Law” which states, that “The force of attraction or repulsion between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the square of distance between them.” – Wikipedia.org

If we assume these two theories are connected then gravity could be explained as a electrogravitic effect. Newton’s theory was in the ballpark of earthbound objects but when it came to explaining very large objects in the universe such as Black Holes or neutron stars, General Relativity explained these objects more fully. However, recently, a Professor named Konstanin Meyl explains how gravity is an electrogravitic effect. Meyl proposes the effects of gravity follow an universal theorem called the Inverse Square Law with says:

is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.” – Wikipedia.org

Meyl applies this law to both a gravitational or electromagnetic field which radiates from a source using the inverse-square law.

479px-Inverse_square_law.svg

“The inverse-square law generally applies when some force, energy, or other conserved quantity is radiated outward radially in three-dimensional space from a point source. Since the surface area of a sphere (which is 4πr2 ) is proportional to the square of the radius, as the emitted radiation gets farther from the source, it is spread out over an area that is increasing in proportion to the square of the distance from the source. Hence, the intensity of radiation passing through any unit area (directly facing the point source) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the point source. – wikipedia.org”

If the earth and the sun have a electromagnetic relationship, then what appears to be gravity is the earth movement is propelled through a positive and negative electromagnetic interaction as it rotates around the sun. According to Dr. Meyl this electromagnetic force creates a type of contraction and expansion of the earth due to one side the earth is always facing away from the sun which creates a type of breathing effect.

However, this effect can not be detected because all the instruments on earth are also expanding and contracting, this is why the famous Michelson-Morely experiment was unsuccessful in discovering this electromagnetic connection with the sun. The only way this scalar field could be detected would be take a measurement outside of our solar system, which James Bradley proposed in 1727.

Dr. Konstantin Meyl Universal Theory predicts that instead of a nuclear reaction process powering the sun, there is a electromagnetic process occurring. Nikola Tesla in the early 1900’s, discovered this electromagnetic relationship between the earth and the sun. He found cosmic rays emanating from the sun and experimented with this energy which he called Radiant Energy. Meyl proposed these particles were neutrinos who source originates from the Black Holes at the center of our galaxy.

Dr. Meyl used Tesla work to develop a Galactic Model where these high frequency energy particles traveled faster than the speed of light through out the galaxy in a fractal manner where resonant receivers such as Suns absorbed these particles within there cores which in turn are re-transmitted into a slower neutrino particles. At each stage these neutrino’s are absorbed and converted into matter (gas/elements) at the center of suns and planets.

fractal-resonance

At the center of the earth are heavy neutrons particles which interact with these cosmic neutrinos which create beta decay creating hydrogen gas. The gas uses the radiation generated by the beta decay to returned back into a neutron due to the high pressure. This creates a equilibrium of forces which create a Bose-Einstein condensate at absolute zero which creates superconductive high pressure gas/plasma which is creating the electromagnetic field which surrounds the earth and not due to some hot rotating metal ball. All the elements of the earth are created due to this process at the center of the earth (except carbon).

If gravity is electromagnetic and if we could prove that the neutrino interaction causes the strong nuclear  force within matter then we live in a electromagnetic universe (the weak nuclear force is already attributed to neutrino interaction – radioactive decay. This would mean the processes within Black Holes, White Dwarfs and Neutron stars are not due to gravitational collapse but in someway are affected through a change in the flow of these high frequency neutrino’s being absorbed within its core. These are examples of how this neutrino energy is able to effect the ratio of mass within matter over large periods of time.

In the Standard Model, physics defines the neutrino as a massless particle that does not interact with the Higgs Bosons which creates mass. In Dr Meyl model, there is only one force which is structured like a vortex ring of electrical potential which creates all the elementary particles.

The model for these electrical ring vortexes are explained by Dr. Meyl by using an simple example of electromagnetic waves being transmitted and received through an antenna. In the picture below, an RF electromagnetic wave is spreading out from a antenna. In the near field they appear like vortexes but as they approached the far field they begin to expand and stretch out creating standard  electromagnetic waves.

dipole fields

scalarwave

In the bottom picture, these ring vortexes rotate at the speed of light while the electrical wave moves perpendicular to these vortexes. These electrical vortexes travel like a longitudinal wave which can adjust the frequency of individual waves due to its oscillation structure. Its most common form appear as electromagnetic waves which moves at the speed of light.

This oscillating property is due to the Lorentz contraction effect. As the electrical potential of these vortexes are increased they boost the frequency of the wave. Meyl proposes that this property allows these scalar waves to be a frequency converter in forming all the elementary particles.

This oscillating process is analogous to those two strings hand toys with a paper disk in the middle. The string represents the wave and the disk represents the electrical vortexes. As the string is winding up and gets shorter which is done by twirling the disk, the potential of the wave is increased (higher wave frequency) and the electrical vortex potential grows larger. And when you pulling the string apart the energy within the string is released which is the same as the electrical vortex potential is being discharged and vortex ring becomes smaller and their wavelength gets longer.

stringtoy

These faster than light particles propagate similar to a sound wave moving through different types of mediums within the near field. When they move at the speed of light they are unstable so some of these waves discharge in the near field and are transformed into heat which is called antenna noise. In the far field  the rest of the scalar waves are converted to electromagnetic waves, however, if you could oscillate them at a higher frequency they would become stable and they can propagate faster than the speed of light in the far field. (Note: This was reported at Cern in 2011  but was retracted later).

Dr. Meyl also discovered a magnetic version of this neutrino energy which runs perpendicular to the Radiant Energy which he calls the Meyl wave. This wave carries the holographic information. This wave encodes information like the hard drive in your computer.

If this is true, then Dr. Lloyd was correct in describing Black Holes as a quantum channel. Our sun also physically interacts with this flow of neutrinos particles from the Black Hole every 13,000 as our solar system completes a full cycle every 26,000 years (precession) through the galactic plane.

As these neutrinos travel faster than the speed of light, they decay and are absorbed within the cores of suns which are then re-emitted at lower frequencies within planetary bodies of the solar system. Thus, the galaxy appears to be a structure of resonating energy points (Black Holes, Suns and Planets) which creates a electromagnetic circuit where each connection fits in within one another just like the Russian Dolls in the picture below. Illustrating the fractal design of how energy is transferred faster than speed of light by using quantum tunneling .

russian-dolls

Nicola Tesla discovered this phenomenon in the early 1900’s and called it Radiant Energy which he described as cosmic particles (neutrinos) emanating from the Sun. Tesla developed a prototype where he was able to transfer Radiant Energy wirelessly when he built the Wardenclyffe Tower between 1901 – 1917. The facility was never completed due to Tesla not be able to fully fund the project.

Tesla_Broadcast_Tower_1904

Tesla was quoted as saying,

“It is not a dream, it is a simple feat of scientific electrical engineering, only expensive – blind, faint-hearted, doubting world! […] Humanity is not yet sufficiently advanced to be willingly led by the discoverer’s keen searching sense. But who knows? Perhaps it is better in this present world of ours that a revolutionary idea or invention instead of being helped and patted, be hampered and ill-treated in its adolescence – by want of means, by selfish interest, pedantry, stupidity and ignorance; that it be attacked and stifled; that it pass through bitter trials and tribulations, through the strife of commercial existence. So do we get our light. So all that was great in the past was ridiculed, condemned, combatted, suppressed – only to emerge all the more powerfully, all the more triumphantly from the struggle.” – “The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires as a Means for Furthering Peace,” Electrical World and Engineer, January 7, 1905.

During this early period of the discovery of electricity, the government wasn’t funding much research, so these early pioneers were subject to venture capitalist like J.P Morgan who were only interested in the bottom line rather than pure research. Tesla discoveries were put aside and this line of researched was forgotten. However, if Tesla had a more academic background he could have published his finding and experiments and we might have started a whole new line of research that could have eventually trumped the invention of wireless communication by decades.

The  modern era should have been dominated by Tesla but instead Albert Einstein’s research on General Relativity and his famous equation E=MC2 took the scientific community by storm which eventually led to nuclear technology and expanded the field of astrophysics. However, Einstein equation for matter and energy was self referential and did not explain what is energy.

The famous physicist Richard Feynman said,

“It is important to realize that in physics today, we have no knowledge what energy is. We do not have a picture that energy comes in little blobs of a definite amount.” – Richard Feynman Lectures 1964.

According to science, energy-matter expanded at the beginning of the Big Bang and will continue until the end of time. In this model the universe is solely dependence on mass and gravity while Dr. Meyl theory is dominated by a single source of energy, electricity.

Einstein made the analogy if you could take a ride on a photon of light, the world would appear to stand still. Thus, if energy is transferred faster than the speed of light it also has no time component from our perspective within the galaxy which is why it appears to come out of nowhere.

This creates a very intimate connection to our creator because the energy we experience that fuels our body and within the environment is occurring in real time and not in some distant point in the past when creation first began. We live in a holographic-energy grid where each resonating point, like the cells within our body are connected to a universal circuit. This circuit not only carries energy but information as Dr. Meyl proposed.

Quantum Mechanics defines this information as a wave function which describes how a particle will behaves over time. The method is used to predict the probability of quantum interactions of particles such as the physics of electromagnetism. In the modern era, QED (Quantum Electrodynamics) is the most successful and verified theorem in physics today, without this theorem solid state electronics, lasers, etc.. wouldn’t exist which is the foundation of our modern technology.

One aspect that both Einstein (Special Relativity) and Quantum Mechanics agreed upon is that time exists as a continuum where the past, present and future events exist simultaneously. Quantum information exist in two forms as holographic information within a 2D dimension (wave function) and as a 3D object within the space-time.

Similar to the teleporation process of quantum information that occurs within Black Holes, a type of retro-causation process could also be occurring on a larger scale where by events from the past and the future are effecting each other. (note: The science is explained in my article, Retro-Casuation and the Symmetry of Time)

timewave-zero

In Terence Mckenna Timewave Zero Theory, he describes historical time as a novelty wave which is a measurement of change over time (a quality of newest and originality). The chart above shows how change can have similar historical ramifications when novelty rates are in resonance. Mckenna developed this algorithm by studying the mathematical changes within the sixty-four hexagrams of the I Ching.

“McKenna expressed “novelty” in a computer program which purportedly produces a waveform known as “timewave zero” or the “timewave”. “Timewave zero” is a numerological formula that purports to calculate the ebb and flow of “novelty”, defined as increase over time in the universe’s interconnectedness, or organized complexity.Based on McKenna’s interpretation of the King Wen sequence of the I Ching, the graph appears to show great periods of novelty corresponding with major shifts in humanity’s biological and sociocultural evolution. He believed that the events of any given time are recursively related to the events of other times …”. – Wikipedia.org

This is the hidden concept folded within the I Ching. In my blog, “The Science of the I Ching” describes a system based upon a mathematical fractal algorithm which Mckenna uncovered. Much of this science is explained within Chaos Theory which is used to develop mathematical models called attractors to predict changes in dynamic systems such as weather systems.

According to the ancients, quantum interactions which are depicted as a oscillations between opposites (Yin/Yang – Hot/Cold) within these dynamic systems create cyclical novelty waves over time which generate harmonic connections between past and future events.

For example, this retro-causation model is very similar to the process of a Black Hole when it is used as a quantum channel to teleport quantum information from the past into future emerging particles creating Hawking Radiation.  This example shows the wave function of particles not only interact on a linear bases within small distance and time but also have a retro-causation component as well.

According to the ancients our reality emerging from Wu-Chi which is symbolized by a empty circle which represents the infinite probabilities within our space-time which is a type of universal wave function for the cosmos. Most of us think of the circle as a boundary but as in Escher’s Circle Limit III drawing shows, the boundary is fractal thus representing a curve that expands into infinity.

From Wu-Chi emerges our 3D space-time reality through a novelty wave that is generated through a oscillation between opposites called yin and yang.

electron-tao

Maybe the ancients were describing a philosophical system that was based upon knowledge of Quantum Electrodynamics.

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Retro-Causation and The Symmetry of Time

In the macro world the physics of time appears to only move in one direction from the past into the future while in the quantum world according to the Wheeler-Feynman Absorber Theory,  time is symmetric meaning it is also possible that a object in the past could also absorb an electron from the future.

For example, in an experiment called “A Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser (Yoon-Ho Kim, R. Yu, S.P. Kulik and an Y.H Shih, 2000) uses the design of the famous Double Spilt experiment to randomly measure  the wave-particle  phenomenon through the observer effect.

This random observation occurs by creating a set of entangled photons after they have passed either of the double slits. From slit A, one particle is sent to the main detector where it measures the particle-wave phenomenon while the other entangled particle is sent through a random process which either records which slit the particle went through or erases this information. A duplicate process is repeated when a photon passes through slit B.

Remember, the measurement problem occurrs when a detector was put at the double slit location to observe which slit the photon passes through. When this was done the photons act as particles because the detection panel only showed two areas where the photons landed. And when they removed this measurement the photons acts like a wave between the two slits and creates an interference pattern at the detection panel.

The sequence of detection times were controlled by distance. The main photon detector (D0) was the shortest distance, thus all the photons at this location will be detected without any knowledge if the slit information was recorded or not. The second event which is set to a longer distance is generated by a random beam splitter (BSA or BSO) which will ether direct it towards locations (D3 or D4) or (D1 or D2). Each specific path of the photons provide the following information:

1. D1 : No path recorded (erased)
2. D2 : No path recorded (erased)
3. D3 : Path recorded from slit A (BSA)
4. D4 : Path recorded from slit B (BSB)

The experiment concluded that when no path information was recorded an interference (waves) pattern occurred and when the path information was recorded it only showed two areas (particles) where the photons landed at detector D0.

This result was surprising because how can the interference pattern disappear when the photons that followed paths 3 and 4 were measured after the photons have already been detected at D0? One possibility is retro-causation where by the future result affects a past event.

Science has ignored the deeply philosophical questions of the observer effect and has concentrated only on ways to calculate the wave-functions of quantum particles. And even if science acknowledged these retro-causal effects of quantum mechanics it would conjecture that they do not necessary translate into the macro world. However, much of this type of phenomenon has occurred as paranormal effects which are explained as Extra Sensory Perception of human consciousness. Phenomenon such as receiving premonitions and remote viewing could be explained within quantum retro-causal effects. For example premonitions can be seen as a person ability to perceive a future event. While remote viewing is gaining information about unknown targets (person, places or things) regardless of locality or time was first introduced by Russell Targ and Harold Putoff in 1974. Both respected physicist working for the Stanford Research Institute conducted research in this area and developed the protocols and training techniques for Remote Viewing Projects for the CIA, DIA and Army Intelligence in the 1970’s and 1980’s.

In the video below Dr. Garret Moddel, a physicist at the University of Colorado has explored such areas as premonition and psychokinesis discusses a general scientific model of retrocausation.


Precognition has been studied by neurologist and scientist such as Dean Radin who is a senior researcher at the Institute of Noetic Sciences. He developed a experiment where he measured the retinal eye movements of test subjects before and after being exposed to emotional images. The results of this experiments concluded there was significant statistical data supporting that precognitive retinal movement occurred before the emotional images were shown. In the 1980’s there was a meta analysis of this subject done which reviewed over 309 experiments that found precognition did occur but accounted for only a small effect.

If precognitive perceptions are possible due to retro-causation effects, then these abilities of the human brain could account for the survival of the specie by developing this trait. This trait could also be apart of a larger holographic process at the quantum level where data could be shared between species based upon similar genetics increasing its survival rate. This could explain the Hundred Monkey story told by Lawrence Blair’ in his 1975 book, “Rhythms of Visions”. It recounts the research done in Japan during the 1950’s of macaques monkeys on the island of Koshima. In 1952, they observed a group of monkeys washing sweet potatoes before they would eat them, then by 1958 they observed this trait had been adopted among most of the macaques monkeys even those on other islands. Later the skeptics claim to prove the behavior was only adopted among the younger monkeys and the spread to other islands was due to monkeys with this trait swam to those islands. What was important was not how but why this new useful information was shared within a group of genetically related animals. It is obvious that the collection of information is pivotal in the human specie to survive and evolve. Even in the modern age when the internet has taken the place of the Hundred Monkey an informational matrix is slowly becoming a physical reality in the 21st century and a tool which is speeding up our current evolution.

The Science of Chaos Theory and the I Ching

Taijitu_Small

As Chaos Theory opened up a new view of nature in the last century, the ancients who wrote the I Ching discovered these same insights over 5,000 years ago. Taoism gained most of this knowledge from observing nature compared to the early days of science where it ignored the systems of nature such as weather because it concluded it was too complex (before computers) to create mathematical models to make predictions.

The history of Chaos Theory started in 1887 when Henri Poincare wrote a paper describing a solution to the motion of two or more orbiting bodies was the first of many discoveries that led science to discover the foundation for Chaos Theory. It took another seventy-three years after Henri Poincare paper to revive its concepts. It was accidentally rediscovered by Edward Lorenz, a mathematician at MIT while working on the problem of weather prediction. He decided to speed up the process inputting data by taking off significant digits from the data he was using to input into the computer. When he reviewed the print out he was amazed how much difference small increments in the data created huge changes in the results. It was through this incident that he began to conclude that the sensitivity to initial conditions must have an underlining mathematical order to it. He later gave a famous speech where he gave an example of this effect when he said, “the flapping wings of a butterfly in Brazil over time could cause a tornado over Texas”. This latter became known as the Butterfly Effect.

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This led to the discovery of the Lorenz Attractor that mapped this chaotic behavior. The picture below maps the process of convection of hot and cold air, thus for the first time it showed scientist that chaotic processes could be quantified and used to predict its behavior over time.

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Another breakthrough was in the discovery of fractals by Benoit Mandelbrot. Even though Chaos Theory did not have a direct link to this discovery, there mathematical principles are very similar, in that, fractal and chaos have a way of reorganizing random information. This aspect of processing infinite amounts of data points by forming self similar shapes or mathematical curves is a running theme in both chaos and fractals. In fractals it accomplished by what is known as iteration. Fractals are based upon an algorithm where each result is feed back into the formula, while chaos maps are generating by the infinite amounts of small random interactions that take place due to entropy which is the measurement of disorder in a system. In Chaos, this creates fractal like layers in the maps as shown in (Fig 2). As these random interactions accumulate they start to act like one fractal shape due to these data points moving closer and closer to each other. This process is called scaling as seen in the picture below which is due to the nature of deterministic chaos having periodic orbits that are dense. For example the mixing of hot and cold air in a weather systems will generate the majority of data points moving towards a state of equilibrium which over time appears as the fractal spiral.

fractalshape

Previously, fractals were described as self similar mathematical shapes that could mimic the natural world. However, another way to understand them is from a geometric perspective. Geometry is the study of objects within spaces and one of its main rules is that the dimension of a space is equal to or greater than the dimension of its objects. For example, a point is the only object that can live in a zero dimension because a point has no direction but a point on a line can also exist in a one dimension space. This is interesting, because the cantor set starts off with a line, where the third middle part of the line is removed that is slowing being divided back into its points which represents its fractal elements. Thus, the cantor set is moving from a one dimensional space, back towards a zero dimension which it quite never gets back too.

zeroone

It seems such a small jump from one back to zero, however, as the cantor set proves, the fractal dimensions of space and objects between these two numbers are infinite. This is where fractals get their name because they are objects that live within fractions of dimensions. This is why there discovery was against the grain of general geometry because most of us in school learned that geometry was the study of idealized objects, such as squares, spheres and triangles. However, in nature we rarely encounter these shapes. But through the work of Mandlebrot, we find that the structures of nature are fractal.

Fractal_Broccoli

In the east, the I Ching discovered this same mystery with numbers before modern mathematics. It seems numbers not only represents quantity but are elements of a language that can describe abstract ideas that are autonomous within the numbers themselves. The I Ching uses this same fractal mathematics to encode information into what are called the hexagram. The I Ching uses a system of sixty-four hexagrams (Fig 6). A hexagram is made up of six lines where each position is either a line or a broken line.

The basic units of the hexagram are two trigrams which is all the possible combinations between the broken and solid lines within three positions which totals eight trigrams (Fig 7).

hextable

Trigrams

The cantor set and the I Ching both have a binary fractal structure because they form two self-similar copies of itself which bifurcates or doubles itself (2, 4, 8 …) at each level .

cantoriching

While using this bifurcation process the I Ching creates a mathematical relationship with the binary numbering system. Gottfried Leibniz in the 17th century commented on this relationship between the I Ching’s hexagrams and binary numbers. This is done by converting each solid line as 1 and each broken line as 0 within the hexagram.

binarylines

When you flip over the hexagram on its side and do the conversion you come up with a binary number.

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In the Tao of Chaos, Dr. Walters noticed that this same bifurcation structure of the I Ching was similar to the mathematics in Chaos Theory. In the work of Robert May a biologist who had a background in theoretical physics used Chaos Theory algorithms to help him predict the effects of environmental factors in population growth in a group of animals he was studying. He noticed in the graphs after the first stages of stabilized growth the maps began to bifurcate into periods of chaos but he then after awhile the graphs indicated the population growth would begin to stabilize again after a third period doubling. This same pattern reappeared over and over, even when he applied this to other types of of biological studies.

Dr. Walters also noticed that DNA had a similar bifurcation structure. DNA is constructed out of two chemical groups, pryrimidines and purines. Out of each of these groups emerge two chemicals which make the four building blocks of DNA, Thyamine, Cytosine, Guanine and Adenine. DNA is made of two double stranded pairs of these four compounds. The information within DNA is converted into a protein through a process that creates RNA. RNA then completes this conversion process to a translation map called codons. These codons are made of three base amino acids of the RNA sequence that is used to create the proteins. There are a possible 64 triplet pairs of codons. These triplet pairs are very similar to the organizational structure of the I Ching trigrams.

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DNA and the hexagram are comparable on many levels when Dr. Walters sums up these traits as, “The DNA swatch has six items … and so does the hexagram. The swatch divides into two polarized triplets, and so does the hexagram. The swatch bonds Item 1 to Item 4, Item 2 to Item 5 and Item 3 to Item 6, and so does the hexagram. The swatch is built on increasing higher orders of bifurcation, and so is the hexagram. And of course, both run through their 64 possible permutations. This is the same mathematical structure.”

The I Ching translate as change. Here the ancients are describing a fractal distribution that is capable of predicting future change similar to the basic cellular map of life DNA follows.This could mean all change in nature follows this same pathway.

The I Ching uses a bifurcation process through repeating a selection process six times by either selecting yin (broken) or yang (solid) line and creating two trigrams which makes a hexagram. For example, in the work of Robert May a biologist who had a background in theoretical physics who was trying to use chaotic mapping to predict population growth in a group of animals he was studying. He used algorithms based upon Chaos Theory to graph data he collected to predicted populations growth. May noticed in the graphs after two unstable periods in population growth but a third period doubling would occur with stable population which occurred later in his study.

This same pattern would reappeared over and over, even when he graphed other types of studies.

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The ancient understood complexity emerges from simplicity. In creating the I Ching, they understood, any event would fall between two general probabilities: either a reading which would be favorable or unfavorable to a question presented to the I Ching. This is represented by the two trigrams that make a hexagram. Each line of the trigram is made up of neither a broken and unbroken line which is group by three just like the period doubling within a Chaos Bifurcation map. In a way, the I Ching is predicting good or bad weather conditions that surrounds your question. When you ask a question of the I Ching you are attempting to take a measurement of the probable future outcome will either have a favorable or unfavorable conditions surrounding this event.

To most, this sounds impossible to predict a probable future just by asking a question and the random throwing of the I Ching coins? However, effecting random generation through conscious intention has been researched by the Global Consciousness Project which recorded significant anomalies in random generators before major global events have occurred.

Our lives could be influenced by our unconsciousness ability to predict future probabilities which helps lead us towards a path where our desired results are most favorable. For example, when primitive man focused on a specific outcomes such as searching for animals for food, he was not only was capable of gathering data from his environment where this food was located but used this unconscious predictive tool in what we call intuition to help guide him through small unconscious actions that would lead to a higher probability in encountering finding the food he desired. This would be a invaluable ability to survive.

The ancient who developed the I Ching understood and used it to predict conditions surrounding the human experience. The ancients understood when these symbols are organized in a fractal grid (sixty-four hexagrams) they can form a generalized psychological bifurcation map of favorable or unfavorable human conditions. Thus, there could be a deep connection between these symbols we used to describe our reality and our unconscious. Each hexagram represents a unique conjugate relationship that exist within nature that are interpreted in a way which describes a particular psychological environment that could surrounds any future event in our lives. The I Ching is not predicting if this event will occur but only the human conditions which are favorable or unfavorable to its outcome.

These archetypes are not set in stone and many interpretations can take place such as the development of the tarot which uses this same science. If our unconscious has this ability to effect the probability curve which is already set at 50 percent of either heads or tails then a very small influence would only be needed to push it in either direction. The I Ching views this infinite probability curve as emerging from the Chaos as the Yin and Yang where all complexity and meaning emerges from the varied fractal progression from these two original aspects.

While consciousness represents the non-physical aspect of Chaos which can not be fully expressed in the physical. We might view it as the structure and intelligence that supports the cosmos through its ability to reorganized itself (Information). I call it the Hologrid.