My initial interest in the Exodus was through my fascination with Immanuel Velikovsky theories of a catastrophic cosmology surrounding it. However, the archaeological record on the Exodus doesn’t support the biblical chronology but if it occurred 300 years earlier there are new discoveries since his book that fit into his thesis. The evidence of this previous era suggests Velikovsky views were correct on revealing a mysterious Asiatic people exiting Egypt during dramatic environmental conditions that could been ultimately caused by cosmic events occurring within our solar system.
However, I disagree with Velikosvsky dating which biblical scholars date the Exodus based upon a reference in The Book of Exodus:
“37 Now the sons of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot…”
Biblical historians believe this Ramesses reference refers to Ramesses II where a new capital named Pi Ramesses was built during his reign between 1279 BC to 1213 BC. The consensus among Biblical scholars date the Exodus between 1250 BC – 1200 BC. Others such as Velikosvsky use another date of 1450 BC based upon another quote in the Bible that it was 480 years since the fourth year of King Solomon reign which began around 975 BC.
The archaeological evidence doesn’t support this time period, however, 300 years before the earlier date of 1250 BC beginning around 1550 BC there was a large group of Asiatic people that lived in the lower Nile Delta in a location named in the Bible as Goshen who were defeated by the Egyptians and push out into the southern Jordan desert.
The journey of these people started approximately 600 years earlier in Northern Asia when a major climate change event took place known as the the 4.2 Kilo Year which was one of the most significant event in the Holocene period. It caused a severe drought in the eastern region of the Mediterranean that resulted in famine which was a factor in causing the collapse of the Egyptian Old Kingdom around 2181 BC.
This triggered several major migration events throughout the millennium of Asiatics from the North who flowed into western Anatolia – Western Europe, east into Mesopotamia, the Levant and all the way down into the Lower Nile Delta. Modern studies have shown that around 2150 BC, there was a period of low flooding that occurred in the Nile Delta which severely affected Egyptian crop yields.
Surrounding this drought Egyptian history records cataclysmic environmental events that occurred during this period which are described in a document known as the Ipuwer Papyrus dated around 1250 BC which is retelling events that occurred in the Twelfth Egyptian Dynasty (1991 – 1803 BC). It also supports the migration theory that was occurring at this time.
Indeed, poor men have become owners of wealth, and he who could not make sandals for himself is now a possessor of riches.
Indeed, men’s slaves, their hearts are sad, and magistrates do not fraternize with their people when they shout.
Indeed, [hearts] are violent, pestilence is throughout the land, blood is everywhere, death is not lacking, and the mummy-cloth speaks even before one comes near it.
Indeed, many dead are buried in the river; the stream is a sepulcher and the place of embalmment has become a stream.
Indeed, noblemen are in distress, while the poor man is full of joy. Every town says: “Let us suppress the powerful among us.”
Indeed, men are like ibises. Squalor is throughout the land, and there are none indeed whose clothes are white in these times.
Indeed, the land turns around as does a potter’s wheel; the robber is a possessor of riches and [the rich man is become] a plunderer.
Indeed, trusty servants are [. . .]; the poor man [complains]: “How terrible! What am I to do?”
Indeed, the river is blood, yet men drink of it. Men shrink from human beings and thirst after water
Indeed, the desert is throughout the land, the nomes are laid waste, and barbarians from abroad have come to Egypt.
Indeed, men arrive [. . .] and indeed, there are no Egyptians anywhere…
This last quote of “the desert is throughout the land, the nomes are laid waste, and barbarians from abroad have come to Egypt.”
This document support a migration was taking place during a time of a drought where a unknown people were entering Egypt.
This hieroglyph was discovered in the tomb of Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan from the 12th dynasty (1901 BC – 1803 BC) that shows a group of Asiatics called the Aamu entering Egypt that is signified by a glyph above on the back of the first animal. The name Aamu could be describing the Amorites whose Kingdom were known as Amurru which was a name used by the Akkadians to describe an Amorite region west of Mesopotamia around 2000 BC. This area was later taken over by the Hittites around the beginning of the 14th century BC.
While history seems to ignore this Asiatic migration other archaeologist such as James Mellart back in 1958 first proposed that the Hittites displaced a indigenous people from migrating from the Pontic Steepe (Ukraine) around 1900 BC which modern historians rejected.
(Note: I theorize these migrations were part of several large movements of these unknown Asiatics that are connected to the emergence of the Minoans (3650 BC – 1450 BC), the Mycenaeans (1600 – 1100 BC) in the Aegean and the Armorites (2400 – 1200 BC – in Syria and Mesopotamia)
Josephus who was a first century Jewish historian references a people called the “Shepherd Kings” (Hyksos) entering Egypt based upon an earlier writings of an Egyptian Priest known as Manetho who states,
“These people, whom we have called kings before, and shepherds too, and their descendants ,” as he says, “held Egypt for five hundred and eleven years. Then,” he says, “the kings of Thebes and the other parts of Egypt rose against the shepherds, and a long and terrible war was fought between them. He says further, “By a king, named Alisphragmuthosis , the shepherds were subdued, and were driven out of the most parts of Egypt and shut up in a place named Avaris, measuring ten thousand acres.” – Josephus referencing Manetho (Aegyptiaca) in Against Apion
Archaeologist Kim Ryholt, suggested the Hyksos were Amorites. She notes the Pharaoh Kamose describes the Hyksos King Apophis as a Chietain of Retjenu (Canaan) in a stela. Another Hyksos king named Khyan, “has generally been interpretative as Amorite Hayanu which the Egyptian form represents perfectly, and this is in all likelihood the correct interpretation” says, Ryholt. Another ruler named Sakir-Har where the compounded last part of the name hr refers to the Canannite word for mountain, Harru. Sakir is connected to word skr meaning to reward which occurs in many Amorite names.
Josephus translated the word Hyksos as the “Shepherd Kings” and it’s origins come from a Egyptian word hekau khaswet [HkAw xAswt] (“rulers [of] foreign lands”). These people traded in wool and bronze work but also strongly followed religious and cultural practices whose priest were known as shepherds.
Prior to the Hykos defeat by the Egyptians during the short reign of the Pharaoh Kamose from 1555 BC to 1550 BC a stele was discovered which described its relationship with the Hyksos. While the Hyksos controlled upper and lower Egypt through an alliance with the Kingdom of Kush (Nubian – Sudan) during the Second Intermediate Kingdoms (15th – 17th Dynasties). The Pharaoh refers to the Hyksos as the Asiatics.
“(3-5) His Majesty spoke in his palace to his council of magistrates who were in his train: ‘To what end do I know my (own) strength? One chief is in Avaris, another in Kush, and I sit (here) associated with an Asiatic and a Nubian! Each man has his slice in this Egypt and so the land is partitioned with me! None can pass through it(2) as far as Memphis (although it is) Egyptian water! See he (even) has Hermopolis! No one can be at ease when they are milked by the taxes of the Asiatics. I shall grapple with him that I might crush his belly, (for) my desire is to rescue Egypt which the Asiatics have destroyed.”
Since 1975, archaeologist have been digging on a site called Tell el-Dab’a that was known in ancient times as Avaris of a people known as the Hyksos. The evidence shows they arrived in the Lower Nile Delta around 1783 BC in the same location (Goshen – Avaris) where the Israelites lived in Egypt as told in the Bible.
Just before 1650 BC the Hyksos took control over lower and upper Egypt where the thirteen Egyptian Dynasty (1803 BC – 1649 BC) mysteriously collapses without any major battles where the experts describe this period in Egypt as chaotic and in disorder.
In the bible, Jacob and his sons move to Goshen during a severe drought where his son Joseph is a high ranking official for the Egyptians. Between 1986 – 1988 a discovery was made of a high official tomb in Avaris where some biblical experts have speculated is Joseph who was a son of Jacob and sold to the Egyptians by his brothers as a slave but later becomes a top administrator in the region (Goshen – Avaris). His possible tomb was found in a section of the cemetery left to the ruling Hyksos where a life size statue (6.5” x 5”) stood which was very rare as seen in the picture above. Only a few small pieces of this stature were found that dated between 1785 BC to 1750 BC of the Egyptian 12th Dynasty. The evidence depicted a person with a mushroom style hair that was dark reddish in color, holding a throw stick and the skin was painted yellow which were all classic characteristic the Egyptians used to describe an “Asiatic”. There was also evidence that the garment on the statue was multi color which is also described in the Bible. (see article)
At the time of the Hyksos defeat in 1550 BC by the Egyptians we find unusual environmental conditions were occurring with little evidence that a major battle took place in this region. It also appears a large parts of the military and the ruling families of the Hyksos had already abandoned Avaris at this time.
A Tempest Stele was discovered ordered by Ahmose I and dated 1550 BC describing a violent storm that could be describing several of the ten plagues that hit Egypt before the Exodus as told in the Bible. Scientist also discovered that the Santorini Volcano erupted between 1595 BC – 1540 BC. Archaeologist have discovered pumice from this eruption buried in strata at Avaris around 1540 BC.
(7) … …the gods expressed
(8) their discontent… The gods (made?) the sky come with a tempest of (rain?); it caused darkness in the Western region; the sky was
(9) unleashed, without … … more than the roar of the crowd; … was powerful… on the mountains more than the turbulence of the
(10) cataract which is at Elephantine. Each house, … each shelter (or each covered place) that they reached…
(11)… were floating in the water like the barks of papyrus (on the outside?) of the royal residence for… day(s)…
(12) with no one able to light the torch anywhere. Then His Majesty said ‘How these (events) surpass the power of the great god and the wills of the divinities!’ And His Majesty descended
(13) in his boat, his council following him. The (people were?) at the east and the west, silent, for they had no more clothes (?) on them…
(14) after the power of the god was manifested. Then His Majesty arrived in Thebes … this statue; it received what it had desired.
(15) His Majesty set about to strengthen the two lands, to cause the water to evacuate without (the aid of) his (men?), to provide them with silver,
(16) with gold, with copper, with oil, with clothing, with all the products they desired; after which His Majesty rested in the palace – life, health, strength.
(17) It was then that His Majesty was informed that the funerary concessions had been invaded (by the water), that the sepulchral chambers had been damaged, that the structures of funerary enclosures had been undermined, that the pyramids had collapsed(?)
(18) all that existed had been annihilated. His Majesty then ordered the repair of the chapels which had fallen in ruins in all the country, restoration of the…
There is also a stele dated to Kamose describing his conquest of Avaris but according to some historians they doubt Kamose ever reached Avaris and this recording was just boasting of his efforts against the Hyksos. However, if this is true, his encountered received very little resistance by the Hyksos because it appears its rulers and a large part of the military and workers seemed to have already abandoned the city.
Kamose II (Habachi 1972)
“(11-18) Behold! I am come, a successful man! What remains is in my possession, and my venture prospers! … Look! I drink of the wine of your vineyards which the Asiatics whom I captured pressed out for me. I have smashed up your resthouse, I have cut down your trees, I have forced your women into ships’ holds, I have seized [your] horses; I haven’t left a plank to the hundreds of ships of fresh cedar which were filled with gold, lapis, silver, turquoise, bronze axes without number, over and above the moringa-oil, incense, fat, honey, willow, box-wood, sticks and all their fine woods – all the fine products of Retenu(11) – I have confiscated all of it! I haven’t left a thing to Avaris to her (own) destitution: the Asiatic has perished! …”
The only encounter Kamose states, is capturing a messenger that was sent to the Nubian King from the son of the King of the Hyksos, Teti at a Oasis named Bahariya that is 370 km southwest of Cairo.
“(19-24) I captured his messenger in the oasis upland, as he was going south to Kush with a written dispatch, and I found on it the following, in writing by the hand of the Ruler of Avaris: ‘[ … ] son of Re, Apophis greets my son the ruler of Kush. Why have you arisen as ruler without letting me know? Do you see what Egypt has done to me? The Ruler which is in her midst – Kamose-the-Mighty, given life! – is pushing me off my (own) land! I have not attacked him in any way comparable to all that he has done to you; he has chopped up the Two Lands to their grief, my land and yours, and he has hacked them up. Come north! Do not hold back! See, he is here with me: There is none who will stand up to you in Egypt. See, I will not give him a way out until you arrive! Then we shall divide the towns of Egypt, and [Khent]-hen-nofer(12) shall be in joy.”
(25-30) ‘I took possession of both deserts and the southland, and the rivers likewise, and no way was found for the … (?). I am never lax concerning my army – the concerned man has not diverted attention – He feared me even when I was sailing north, before we had fought, before I reached him! When he saw my flame he beat a path as far as Kush to seek his deliverer. (But) I seized it en route and did not let it arrive…’
– translation from D. Redford, “Textual Sources for the Hyksos Period,” in E.D. Oren
In 2010, archaeologist discover Minoans/Mycenaeans frescoes in the palaces at Avaris showing a political alliance either with the Hyksos or the Egyptians around the time of the Exodus and the Santorini Eruption. Its possible they were hired by the Egyptians to guard their shipping ports and were fleeing the volcanic activity that was building up at Santorini.
However, there is later evidence there was a trading relationship between the Canaanites (Hyksos) and the Mycenaeans that continued 250 years after the Exodus due to the discovery of a shipwreck in 1967 off the southwest coast of Turkey near the town of Bodrum which was identified as a Canaanite ship dated around 1300 BC. This surprised archaeologist because trading between the Aegean and the Egyptian coast at such a early date had not been accepted by the main stream historians. It was also not known that the Canaanites had the technology to build such a large ship at this time. The ship was called the Uluburun and from the examination of its cargo it probably sailed from Lower Egypt or Canaan, heading north to Ugarit on the northern Syria coast and then to Cyprus and finally shipwrecked off the Aegean coast.
The ship was carrying a fortune of 350 ingots of copper, ebony logs from Nubia, one hundred and forty Canaanite storage jars from Italy to Greece. There was even Tin that probably came from Afghanistan and pottery identified from Mycenae and Minoan were also found on the ship. They also found two Mycenaeans on board.
If we look closely at the Hyksos, they were probably hired mercenaries or the Egyptians were took weak to stop their entry into the lower Nile delta. By 1300 BC they still were business partners with the Mycenaeans. And their culture was already a accomplished military force by the time they reached Egypt. They brought with them the crossbow, the horse and chariot, improved battle axes, advanced fortification techniques, bronze work, pottery and ship building. They were highly intelligent, skilled administrators and diplomats in forming trading and political alliances and exerting political power. The influence of the Hyksos were a powerful people which history has forgotten until only recently.
The alliance between the Canaanites (Hyksos) and the Mycenaeans were more than a business partnership but appears to include being a political alliance which could explain why their ship the Uluburun was off the coast of Turkey by the ancient city of Troy. Dr. Eric Cline states in his book called the “1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed” which he describes the Collapse of the Bronze Age (CBA) states,
“It is during the reign of the Httite King called Muwattalli II in the early- to mid-thirteen century BC, that we first learn from texts keep in the state archives at the capital city of Hattusa of a renegade Hittite subject named Piyamaradu …It is thought that Piyamaradu was probably acting on behalf of, or in collusion with Ahhiyawans (I.e., the Bronae Age Mycenaeans) ” – Dr. Eric Cline book – 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed
Dr. Cline also points to another area of interest in southwestern Anatolia called Wilusa which was another name for the city of Troy. Similar tactics were also being used in Wilusa by the Mycenaeans, however, the archaeologist Blegen didn’t find any evidence of a battle at Troy but found destruction caused by an earthquake. Could the cause of the Uluburun shipwreck been the same earthquake activity that destroyed the city of Troy?
By the time the CBA takes place around 1200 BC the whole region was experiencing violent earthquakes especially between 1225 BC to 1175 BC in the Eastern Mediterranean. Dr. Cline describes this environment as continuous “Earthquake Storms” along the major fault system which is verified in the archaeological record in Egypt, Cyprus, North – South Anatolia, Ugarit along the northern Syria coast and other Canaanite cities in the Levant.
The cause of this increase in activity of earthquakes during this period could have occurred due to the interaction between our sun and Planet X return. (see article)
“Solar activity, as indicated by sunspots, radio noise and geomagnetic indices, plays a significant but by no means exclusive role in the triggering of earthquakes. Maximum quake frequency occurs at times of moderately high and fluctuating solar activity. Terrestrial solar flare effects which are the actual coupling mechanisms which trigger quakes appear to be either abrupt accelerations in the earth’s angular velocity or surges of telluric currents in the earth’s crust. The graphs presented in this paper permit probabilistic forecasting of earthquakes, and when used in conjunction with local indicators may provide a significant tool for specific earthquake prediction.” – 1967 Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Also during this unstable period of intense environmental storms an unknown group called the Sea People contributed to the demise of the Hittites, Amorites and Mycenaeans.
(I will bypass this subject of the Sea People for I have written about them in previous blogs (The Builders of Gobekli Tepe Part I) but again it appears this group could be connected to the Mycenaeans/Canaanites and were a type of marauding mercenaries used by the Ancients as proxies to destroy and plunder city-states in the Aegean, northern Syria, the Levant and Egypt to further consolidate their wealth and destroy any material that would reveal who these people were).
While the archaeological record supports the destruction of Canaanite cities such as Jericho around 1500 BC, it appears 300 years of the chronology of the Bible must be missing events that doesn’t have to do with the military advances in Canaan but could explain the development of major trading activity in southern Jordan that emerges in the Late Bronze Age through the Iron Age between the Middle East and Asia.
It appears a portion of the Canaanites-Hyksos exodus could have included a small group of of Mycenaeans and Sea People continued their military conquest and business activity into the Jordan desert and their descendants were later associated with expanding the classical kingdom of Idumea (Edom) and Midian where one of the largest copper mining operations in the ancient world was discovered in southern Jordan called Khirbat en-Nahas that was built around 1000 BC. Some researchers believe this is the site of the lost Solomon mines due to it’s large scale which needed expertise in copper metallurgy which the Mycenaeans possessed.
Three thousand years ago not many cultures or individuals had the knowledge to mine and smelt copper into ingots, let alone be able to transport and sell it on a large scale. This was a very sophisticated and lucrative business enterprise due to the disruption of the copper trade in Cypress after the CBA. A biblical reference that might explain this connection with this copper mine comes from the Exodus,
“Jethro… or Reuel was Moses’ father-in-law, a Kenite shepherd and priest of Midian. In Exodus, Moses’ father-in-law is initially referred to as “Reuel” (Exodus 2:18) but then as “Jethro” (Exodus 3:1). He was the father of Hobab in the Book of Numbers 10:29. He is also revered as the spiritual founder and chief prophet in his own right in the Druze religion…. – Wikipedia.org
Kenites had very similar metalworking skills as the Mycenaeans and Jethro is also described as a priest and a shepherd.
“The Kenites were coppersmiths and metalworkers. Moses’ father-in-law, Jethro, was a shepherd and a priest in the land of Midian. Judges 1:16” (Wikipedia.org).
(Note: There is even an hypothesis by F. W. Ghillany that the cult of Yahweh was taught by the Kenites (Midianites) to the Hebrews).
There is also a connection between the Mycenaeans/Sea People and Midianites which dates around the 13th century BC whose orgins still haven’t been discovered.
“Because of the Mycenaean motifs on Midianite pottery, some scholars including George Mendenhall, Peter Parr and Beno Rothenberg have suggested that the Midianites were originally Sea Peoples who migrated from the Aegean region and imposed themselves on a pre-existing Semitic stratum. The question of the origin of the Midianites still remains open.” – Wikipedia.0rg
Later, this region will be associated with the incense trading routes of myrrh and frankincense that started from Madain Saleh, Saudi Arabia up through Petra which distributed these items throughout the Mediterranean beginning around 400 BC to 300 BC. These nomadic traders were called the Nabataeans and the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus around 312 BC describes an expedition sent by the Greek Antigonus to find them which failed. Their empire stretched south from Aelana accessing the Gulf of Aqaba to as far north as Bostra as seen in the map above. They appeared in Judea sometime after the Hebrews captivity in Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar in 587 BC.
Remnants of the elites from the Hittites and Mycenaeans, Hyksos Empire after the CBA could have later evolved into the Nabataeans as traders who shared an mystery religion that originated from these unknown Asiatic people. As, in my previous blogs, I have connected these people to the Chaldeans. One of the few texts which uncovers their religious practices comes from a book called, “Nabataean Agriculture”.
Ibn Wahshiyya translated from Nabataean the Nabataean Agriculture (Kitab al-falaha al-nabatiya; c. 904), a major treatise on the subject, which was said to be based on ancient Babylonian sources. The book extols Babylonian civilization against that of the conquering Arabs. It contains valuable information on agriculture and superstitions, and in particular discusses beliefs attributed to the Sabians – understood as people who lived before Adam – that Adam had parents and that he came from India. — S.H. Nasr (Wikipedia)
Others, such as, Moses Maimonides, an Egyptian Jewish scholar (1135 – 1205 AD) who had read Ibn Washiyya translation of “Nabataean Agriculture” wrote,
“The great book on this subject is the book On the Nabatean Agriculture, translated by Ibn Wahshiya. In a succeeding chapter I shall explain why the Sabeans had their religious doctrines written in a work on agriculture. The book is full of the absurdities of idolatrous people, and with those things to which the minds of the multitude easily turn and adhere [perseveringly]; it speaks of talismans, the means of directing the influence [of the stars]; witchcraft, spirits, and demons that dwell in the wilderness. …These are remnants of the Sabeans, who once filled the earth.” – Guide to the Perplexed – Maimonides
Maimonides reference the Sabeans (Sabians) that comes from the Quran where he believes these ancient indigenous people beliefs were described in Nabataean Agriculture. Little is known of these mystery people other than what was written by Ibn Wahshiya and Maimonides. These Sabeans have also been associated with the Mandaeans, Yzadis and the Bahá’í Faith, including the ancient Harrians who have been connected with a Chaldean moon religion that was associated with Abraham’s family.
“These newly dubbed Harranian Sabians acknowledged Hermes Trismegistus as their prophet and the Hermetica as their sacred text, being a group of Hermeticists. Validation of Hermes as a prophet comes from his identification as Idris (i.e. Enoch) in the Qur’an (19.57 and 21.85)” – Wikipedia.org
These mystery people who Maimonides said,”who once filled the earth” could be associated with these Asiatic people who migrated into eastern Mediterranean and down into Egypt had already formed an ancient religion that originated in the mythical Babel (Urfa, Turkey – Gobekli Tepe) and later in Harran which is at the southern edge of the Armenian Plateau which was part of the path these Asiatics took from the northern Pontic Steppes as described by archaeologist James Mellart.
This ancient Moon religion as seen as the crescent moon held by the priest in the picture above. They were highly organized through a brotherhood of families and clans which later formed the builders and managers of these ancient Middle Eastern kingdoms were comprised of an educated priestly caste who were the scribes, architects and engineers who executed and preserved this knowledge. The knowledge of this caste of priests where based upon a older culture of the Chaldean/Sumerian priesthoods which only verbally transmitted these secrets between family member.
Diodorus Siculus, an Greek historian wrote,
“The Chaldeans learn it by tradition from their ancestors, the son from the father, who are all in the mean-time free from all other public offices and attendances; and because their parents are their tutors, they both learn every thing without envy, and rely with more confidence upon the truth on what is taught them; and being trained up in learning from their very childhood, they become most famous philosophers…” – Diodorus Siculus
They are organized through clans and secret associations where their allegiance are connected to an High Priest similar to the Pope or in Islam known as Imans and Caliphs and not to the city-states they served. If these skilled engineers and operators who maintained the infrastructure of these city-states were all of the sudden vanished it wouldn’t take much time before chaos would ensue and the people would start abandoning these cities, such as, in the case of Avaris. And later during the CBA this priesthood that served the city-states of the Hittites and Amorites could have been looking for signs for the return of Planet X (Nibiru) and understood the havoc that it would bring.
The above picture is a Sumerian tablet dated 1000 BC that observed a red planet named Nibiru (Planet X). This priesthood keeps detail records of observations of the night sky.
Some of these secrets came in the form of technology such as the building design of the Canaanite-Hyksos Uluburun shipwreck which used a sophisticated method of ship construction for its time called Mortise and Tenon joints. This type of ship building will be later found among the Phoenicians ships built in Carthage which had one of the largest navy installation on the northern African coast whose builders were able to mass produce ships on a large scale because each of it parts were standardized. A modern technique still used today. Their engineering rival the later Romans.
Rather than using the expensive and massive projects the Roman used to build infrastructure, these ancient engineers had a tendency to use the natural landscape of the terrain and its topology to design water transport systems which allowed them to build there city-states in isolated locations where others could not live which was part of their defensive strategy. One of the reasons that it took archaeologist so long to find the ancient Hittite capital, was because Hattusa was located in a isolated part of northern Anatolia where no other ancient empire existed before. Petra, the Nabataeans fortress which was also located in a isolated desert region in southern Jordan was built around 400 BC wasn’t discovered by the western world until it was shown to an Swiss explorer named Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1812 AD which was over two thousand years after it was built.
The engineering of Hattusa and Petra had very similar water transport systems which were feed by a large springs miles away at a higher elevation. Both used the natural topology of the site to channel the water into similar ceramic pipes (see pictures below) that feed into large cisterns that stored enough water for these city-states to last for months. Extensive maintenance and engineering planning was needed to build these systems.
The palaces of the Hittites and Mycenaeans also had similar entrances built into their cities both using similar iconography which could indicate both cultures shared a similar belief system.
You can see both entrances used lion iconography which is associated with a moon goddess known in ancient times as Istar, Astarte, Isis and Innana. This architectural motif is honoring this goddess who is shown in the picture below standing on the two lions
Over time this archetype forms into an Anatolian Goddess known as Cybele and later emerges into the western world by the Greeks as Artemis, in the Roman pantheon as Diana and later associated with secret societies such as Bohemian Grove. An example of a statue of Cybele was found in an ancient shrine built in a watery marsh area next to the Tiber River where the Vatican would eventually be located. Cybele was,
“… originally a Anatolian mother goddess; she has a possible precursor in the earliest neolithic at Çatalhöyük (in the Konya region) where the statue of a pregnant goddess seated on a lion throne was found in a granary. She is Phrygians only known goddess, and was probably its state deity. Her Phrygian cult was adopted and adapted by Greek colonists of Asia Minor and spread from there to mainland Greece and its more distant western colonies from around the 6th century BCE.” – Wikipedia.org
Cybele was known to the Greeks as Magna Mater (”Great Mother’) which came from an Anatolia myth that was described by the 4th century Christian named Arnobius,
“….symbolised the world order”. Her image held aloft signifies the Earth, which “hangs in the air”. She is the mother of all, and the yoked lions that draw her chariot show the offspring’s duty of obedience to the parent. She herself is uncreated, and thus essentially separate from and independent of her creations.”
During this period the Hittites, Mycenaeans and the Egyptians controlled the lucrative trading routes could not only tax these shipments but could demand yearly tribute payments in exchange for supporting and protecting those city-states that used these trading routes. Strategic forts were built along these routes and especially in the most isolated parts to protect the merchants and their goods from other settlements and robbers.
In the southern desert of Jordan, a similar strategy of isolated city-states such as Petra served this purpose, however another possible fortress location along this Nabataean trading route could have been the famous Qumran site associated with the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Essenes. It was built in a strategic location on the Northwest shore of the Dead Sea that could have protected the roads into Judea and also had access to the Jordan River leading up into Syria. The site had three distinct layers of occupation. Layer 1 was connected to the Hasmonean era around 110–63 BC and 40–37 BC. Layer 2 was associated with the Herodian era between 4 BC until the Romans-Jewish wars between 66 – 135 AD while the Layer 3 shows the site was again re-populated.
The Hasmonean era was the precursor to the Herodian Dynasty which controlled Judea under the directions of the Romans. Antipater I the Idumean (Edomite-Midianite) was an advisor to the Hasmonean King, Hyrcanus convince him that his brother was trying to kill him and he needed to seek the protection of the Nabataean King Aretas in Petra. When the Romans heard of Hyrcanus actions they took this opportunity to reestablish its rule over Judea and eventually replaced the Hasmonean King and installed Antipater I as Governor of Judea who later created the Herodian Dynasty by putting his son, Herod the Great, as the King of the Jews in Jerusalem.
Other researchers other than Roland de Vaux who was the main archaeologist of the Qumran site have described it as a fortress,
“Rev. Albert Isaacs, British counsel James Finn, and photographer James Graham visited Qumran in December 1856. Isaacs stated regarding Qumran’s tower, “It can hardly be doubted that this formed a tower or stronghold of some kind. The situation is commanding, and well adapted for defensive operations. “Finn later suggested Qumran was “some ancient fort with a cistern.” – Wikipedia.org
These fortresses not only protected these trading routes but served as banks to allow secure transactions to take place. Large amounts of gold and silver coins were found buried at Qumran where a study determined millions of coins could have passed through Qumran based upon the amount of coins found on site. The building of these fortresses along this Nabataean trading route could have been financed by the Khirbat en-Nahas copper mine at a much earlier date and later were used to finance the incense trade.
There are still major questions concerning the original analysis by Roland de Vaux who claimed it was built by an Essene community that maintained an early library for the Talmud text (Dead Sea Scrolls). It appears more likely the scrolls found in the caves near Qumran were sent out of Jerusalem to be protected and stored in a isolated region for safe keeping during the Roman-Jewish war. These individuals who stored these scrolls could have had ancient ties to the mystery culture that built Qumran.
This may be a coincidence but Qumran, Hattusa and the Khirbat en-Nahas sites all seem to have a natural half moon shape on the mesas they were built on which could be related to their worship of the Moon Goddess. These cultures were fanatical in replicating their religious beliefs and incorporating them in their architectural designs.
It is also interesting that the archaeologist Roland de Vaux final report on Qumran was never completed due to his sudden death during an operation in 1971. There were only minor investigations of the site since this time but the analysis of Roland de Vaux investigation needed to be completed before another major investigation could be planned on the site. The report was finally completed in 2003 over thirty years later after Vaux death.
Qumran and Petra were also built in strategic locations that benefited them from being close to the Silk Road trading route that could have been established earlier by the Hyksos-Mycenaeans due to Chinese silk was found in ancient Egypt dating around 1070 BC.
This trade route was used during the Nabataean era (400 BC) and eventually taken over by the Romans around 130 BCE opening up commerce to the east (India/China) and later accessing Europe. Again the Ancients are involved in establishing lucrative trade routes with prosperous partners similar to the Palace Economy during the Late Bronze Age.
The trail of the Ancients paints a picture of a culture preferring to be antonymous and hidden within in the shadows of these major dynasties. They prefer to be pioneers in forging new businesses that were lucrative with wealthy partners. They were fierce warriors and negotiators and were pragmatic in their decision process. If they couldn’t entice you with lucrative trading they would try to out smart you or trick you their last resort was forcing you to their side.
For example, before the battle of Kadesh occurred in 1274 BC, the Hittites sent out fake scouting soldiers that gave out false information that the Hittite army hadn’t reached Kadesh. After the Egyptians questioned these Hittite scouts a large regiment of the Egyptian army was sent out to secure Kadesh before the Hittite army arrived but the Egyptians regiment were quickly defeated by the Hittites who had secretly surrounded the city.
There are also stories of this group using the Silk Road to trade copper and silver for gold with China because the Chinese valued these metals over gold. The amount of wealth accumulated during these centuries is inconceivable. They are the forerunners to the western model of ruthless mega successful corporations completely unknown to the western world.
The Ancients are very connected to past locations. For example, the capital of the Hyksos, Avaris and the modern city of Ismailia share a similar locations in the Nile Delta where the Muslim Brotherhood would later emerge from in 1928 AD. And this location will also be used to build the Suez Canal where these Asiatics would once again be able to tax those that passed through their land as in the time when they ruled upper and lower Egypt as the Hyksos.
In a previous blog, “The Builder of Gobekli Tepe Part I” I proposed a genetic mutation associated with the Ancients known as R1b that took place around 10,000 BC creating the R1b mutation which migrates into Western Europe and the Levant. Genetic studies have shown the R1b group had previous ties to Russia (Kazakhstan) but also has been associated with the Jordanians in the Dead Sea area which corresponds to my theory that Qumran was built by the Ancients (Hyksos – Nabataeans).
The only population yet recorded with a definite significant proportion of R1b* are the Kurds of southeastern Kazakhstan with 13%.However, more recently, a large study of Y-chromosome variation in Iran, revealed R1b* as high as 4.3% among Persian sub-populations. In a study of Jordan it was found that no less than 20 out of all 146 men tested (13.7%), including most notably 20 out of 45 men tested from the Dead Sea area, were positive for M173 (R1) but negative for P25 and M269…” – Wikipedia.org
(Note: M173 is associated with the R1 mutation that breaks into two branches R1b (P25 and M269) and R1a(M-420 and M-17).
Red (R1b) and Purple (R1a)
The Asiatic migration that occurred from the Armenian Plateau also occurred later in the Iranian Plateau where a second mutation occurred within the R1 Halogroup known as R1a (M420) mutation which originated in the southern region of the Caspian Sea and eventually moves south into northern India. The R1a mutation occurred at a much later date due to the diversity within the R1b genetic branch. These ancient people were known as the “Indo-Iranians” who have been associated with the Indo-Aryan Migration Theory that settled in a isolated location where currently the capital of Iran (Tehran). And later becomes the location where the mighty Persian Empire will emerge.
(Note: In 2014, a study by Underhill et al., using 16,244 individuals from across Western Asia concluded that there was evidence, that R1a-M420 originated in Iran.)
This location would eventually become the homeland of a branch of Islam known as Shia but this area also has ancient ties to the Assassins whose castle fortress is only 62 miles from Tehran called Alamut. They practiced an offshoot of Shia Islam known as Nizari Ismailis which lasted in this region between 1080 AD – 1275 AD which appears to not have died off due to the emergence of radical Islam that has took over Iran and Egypt where these Asiatics have a long history.
Its ironic that the longest political-religious rivalry in the Middle East since the reestablishment of the Jewish state and the emergence of the radical Islamic nation of Iran are genetic brothers. And by bringing in the major western powers into this conflict they have generated over a trillion dollars in defense spending that finally end up in corporation coffers. Sounds like a swindle of tax dollars between a bad cop, good cop presentation.
The Assassins from the 10th century are infamous for recruiting mercenaries and converting them over to the Ismaili religion and then sending them out on suicide missions to engage in a political proxy war by using extreme methods of diplomatic persuasion such as assassination and poisoning their adversaries to create a atmosphere of terror within the geo-politics of the region. These same political tactics were used by the Canaanite/Mycenaeans on Hittite cities (1300 BC) almost a millennium before.
The philosophy behind creating a false or anonymously triggered political conflict comes from a nation building perspective by keeping the need for governments relevant in the public’s eye and to strengthen its nationalistic agenda. This concept is known as creating a “Noble Lie”,
“… a noble lie s a myth or untruth, often, but not invariably, of a religious nature, knowingly propagated by an elite to maintain social harmony or to advance an agenda. The noble lie is a concept originated by Plato as described in the Republic”. – Wikipedia.org
The “Noble Lie” is part of a larger philosophy believed by these Ancients and supported by Plato, Hegel and Heraclitus of Ephesus (535 – 475 BC) a Greek philosopher that believed the Logos (God) emerges within nature through a perpetual state of a “union of opposites” that is always in a constant state of conflict or becoming. Heraclitus wrote of this philosophy that is similar to Taoism,
“All things come into being by conflict of opposites, and the sum of things (the whole) flows like a stream.”
On a deeper unconscious level the Ancients have manipulated these traumatic events into apocalyptic stories of the Flood and the Exodus leaving its true cosmic origins a mystery.