This blog explores the possibility that the archaeological site in southeastern Turkey called Gobekli Tepe is the famous Tower of Babel first described in the Hebrew Bible.
The Tower of Babel is first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis 11:
“Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens…” – chapter 4
This city is later called “Babel” in chapter 9, however, in Genesis 10:10, the city of Babel (Babylon) has already been built in the land of Shinar constructed by Nimrod.
“the beginning of Nimrod’s kingdom is said to have been “Babel [Babylon], and Erech [Uruk], and Akkad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.” Verse 11:2 states that Shinar enclosed the plain that became the site of the Tower of Babel after the Great Flood. After the Flood, the sons of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, had stayed first in the highlands of Armenia, and then migrated to Shinar. – Wikipedia.org
Evidence of the possible builders of Babylon and the Tower of Babel comes from a Mesolithic settlement that is dated older than Gobekli Tepe which is only four miles away in Urfa where in 1993 the “Balıklıgöl Statue” was discovered. This statue dates to 11,000 years ago and in the opinion of Assistant Professor A. Chiat Kurkcuglu of Harran University claims that Urfa was probably one of the first settlements in human history.
(Note: the statue appears to have six fingers!)
Near the center of Urfa is a mosque that was built around an ancient cave site where a large pool is filled with fish. It is located near where the stature above was discovered and still believed in the Islamic tradition to be the birthplace of Abraham as shown in the picture below.
Mosque of Abraham in Urfa, Turkey
This mosque is associated with an Islamic story of a mighty ruler that some scholars believe to be Nimrod who is confronted by the righteous Ibrahim (Abraham). This meeting ends with Nimrod sending Ibrahim to be burned alive for not believing Nimrod is a God. When Ibrahim is thrown into the fire, a miracle occurs, the fire turns into water and the coals of the fire are transformed into fish.
One of the oldest maps of Babylon (Babel) that was dated from the 6th century BC was copied from an older map from the 9th century BC gives its geographical position around Urfa, Turkey. I altered the maps interpretation by adding the Haran location as a reference point which was a hole that was made in the map without any notation including the Balikh river that flows south into the Euphrates from Haran. When we compare this ancient map using the accepted location of Babylon in southern Mesopotamia the other locations listed on the map do not match most of the accepted ancient maps of the region.
For example, according to the ancient map the Assyrian Empire is east of Babylon, while in the historical map above it is shown to be located to the north. Also, the ancient site of Der is shown south of Babylon but should be located towards the east. However, when we use Urfa as the location for Babylon both maps generally agree that the Assyria Empire is to the east and the ancient site of Der is to the southeast.
The Armenian Plateau which includes Urfa was part of a region where the Neolithic Revolution took place and later becomes the central location for the Iron Age.
“From 4,000 B.C. to 1,000 B.C., tools and trinkets of copper, bronze and iron were commonly produced in this region and traded in neighboring lands where those metals were less abundant. It is also traditionally believed to be one of the possible locations of the Garden of Eden. The Armenian Plateau has been called the “epicenter of the Iron Age”, since it appears to be the location of the first appearance of Iron Age metallurgy in the late 2nd millennium BC.” – Wikipedia.org
In the second chapter of Genesis 11 it states:
“It came about as they journeyed east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there”
From a archaeological standpoint it would be very difficult to track this Mesolithic migration into Urfa due to the building of the modern city which probably destroyed any evidence or from the Gobekli Tepe site that was abandoned around 8,000 BC and was used exclusively as a ceremonial site where there is very little evidence of its builders were found on the site. We would have to move up to 3,000 BC to find records of any large groups of native people in the region. However, one way to fill in this historical gap of the people who occupied the Armenia Plateau is using DNA profiling that has become a valuable tool in the science of Archaeology. According to the Armenia DNA Project which revealed that this group contains a very ancient branch called R1b that originated from the “east” coming from Russia some 25,000 years ago including a later branch known as R1b1b that emerged in the Anatolia and Levant region around 10,000 BC years ago which populated the areas around the Black Sea and the Armenian Plateau.
This branch could have signified an important birth among the Builders of Gobekli Tepe whose descendants later expanded into other areas between 5,000 – 3,000 BC called R1b1a that moved into Central/Southern Asia and Southwestern Europe which could represents a migration event moving into the Levant region as described in the Bible. And also indicates that there was a new genetic branch created by these builders through interbreeding with the local population around 10,000 years ago.
The Autosomal DNA chart above is used to analyze DNA based upon common ancestral DNA and compare them to other groups. The chart shows that the Turks and Armenians are the closes genetic match but they are also closely connected to the Georgian Jews, Iranians and Assyrians which all share a common ancestor. This first comparison is obvious due to the Turks and Armenians have lived in the same region for centuries but the other similar Armenian DNA groups show a movement to the north into Georgia and east into the region of ancient Assyria (Iraq) and Iran.
(Note: The Armenian DNA project also determined early on that when this branch was originally created in this region around 10,000 BC it had already been diluted with much older ancient DNA groups from other areas dislodging the belief that the Armenians are descended from an individual with no DNA branching from other regions – Noah).
The ancient Armenians were known as the Amorites from the upper highlands were a Canaanite speaking group whose origins were first referenced by the Akkadian’s as the Amurru beginning around 2400 BC. Due to a major drought beginning around 2200 BC known as the 4.2 kilo year event that lasted almost 100 years which forced the Amorites into southern Mesopotamian who were part of the influences which collapsed the third dynasty of Ur in Chaldea somewhere after 2154 BC.
In Theophilus Pinches book, The Old Testament in the Light of Historical Records and Legends, he wrote,
“…. Gibeonites, Hivites, Jebusites and even Hittites – were classified as Amorites by the ancient Jewish writers, a circumstance which likewise testifies to the power of the nationality. …. the Akkadian character for a mountainous region or nationality, stood not only for Armenia, and the land of the Amorites, but also for the land of Akkad” – 1903
The Amorites who I believe were also the ancient Chaldeans are connected to the city “Ur of Kasdim” and Abraham as mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Many believed this city to be the Ur in southern Mesopotamia discovered by Leonard Wooley in 1927 but before this time it was believed to be the city of Urfa in Turkey. I proposed the location of the original Babel was Urfa which through the millennium was forgotten and later became known as Ur of Kasdim or Erech where Abraham is believed to be born in the Islamic tradition. The Babylonia historian Berossus wrote,
“in the tenth generation in the city Camarina of Babylonia, which some call the city Urie, and which signifies a city of the Chaldæans, the thirteenth in descent lived Abraham, of a noble race, and superior to all others in wisdom; of whom they relate that he was the inventor of astrology and the Chaldæan magic, and that on account of his eminent piety he was esteemed by God. It is further said, that under the directions of God he removed and lived in Phœnicia, and there taught the Phœnicians the motions of the sun and moon and all other things; for which reason he was held in great reverence by their King.”
William D. Barrick, Th.D. Professor of Old Testament wrote of the biblical Ur associated with Abraham birth wasn’t in Mesopotamia but to the north,
“According to Roy Zuck, “The Sabeans and Chaldeans (Job 1:15, 17) were
nomads in Abraham’s time, but in later years they were not nomadic.”55 He does not deny their existence in the patriarchal period, only a city of their own. On the basis of evidence from Ebla, some have suggested that Ur of the Chaldeans should actually be located in the north, in the vicinity of Haran.”
The ancient origins of the Chaldeans are a mystery where Dr. Barrick writes,
“… their earlier origins are uncertain.”61 The most ancient of available references to the Chaldeans seem to identify them with “a wandering desert tribe of robbers.”62 Roitman associates this nomadic group with “Chesed, the son of Nahor and father of the Chaldeans according to biblical ethnography.”63 Thus, we come to the conclusion that the Chaldeans are more ancient than the Assyrian records.”
As to the connection between Abraham and the ancient Chaldeans Dr. Annette Yoshkio Reed who is Associate Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Pennsylvania wrote an article on the subject,
“… Josephus’ approach to Abraham and astronomy/astrology in Ant 1.154-168. This retelling of Genesis 12 describes Abraham as inferring the oneness of God from the irregularity of the stars, thereby implying his rejection of “the Chaldean science” for Jewish monotheism. Soon after, however, Josephus posits that the patriarch transmitted astronomy/astrology to Egypt…” Annette Yoshkio Reed, “Abraham as Chaldean Scientist and Father of the Jews: Jospehus, ant. 1.154-168, and the Greco-Roman Discourse about Astronomy/Astrology”.
The ancient historian, Diodorus Siculus commented that the Chaldeans were the most ancient people of the Babylonian culture and had a strong connection to Egypt.
“It is said that the Chaldeans in Babylon are derived from an Egyptian colony, and have acquired their reputation for astrology by means of the information obtained from the priests in Egypt.” Diodorus Siculus – The History of the Eqyptians
The knowledge of the Chaldean priesthood was only verbally transmitted between family member. Diodorus wrote,
“The Chaldeans learn it by tradition from their ancestors, the son from the father, who are all in the mean-time free from all other public offices and attendances; and because their parents are their tutors, they both learn every thing without envy, and rely with more confidence upon the truth on what is taught them; and being trained up in learning from their very childhood, they become most famous philosophers…” – Diodorus Siculus
What we call astrology and ceremonial magic today was born out of a type of Astro-Theology developed by the Chaldeans/Amorites. The archetype in which these learned priest are based upon comes from the Sumerian myth of Oannes the first of seven Mesopotamian sages. According to the Assyriologist George Smith who discovered the “Epic of Gilgamesh” on cuneiform tablets gives a description in his book “Chaldean Account of Genesis,
“Oannes …whose whole body (according to the account of Appollodorus) was of a fish…he gave them an insight into letters and sciences, and arts of every kind. He taught them to construct cities, to found temples, to compile laws, and explained the principles of geometrical knowledge.” – George Smith.
In the myth, when Abraham is thrown into the fire by Nimrod where the fire turns into water and the coals of the fire turn into fish is a metaphor where the creative energy (fire) is transformed into knowledge (water) while the symbolism of the coals turning into fish are those that have passed this test of the fire have become the mystery priesthood that followed.
These Amorites priests later evolved into the “En” which were the known as the High Priest.
“…Sumerian city states were under a virtually-complete theocratic government controlled by independent groups of En, or high priests. Priests were responsible for continuing the cultural and religious traditions of their city-state, and were viewed as mediators between humans and the cosmic and terrestrial forces. The priesthood resided full-time in temple complexes, and administered to matters of state including the large irrigation processes necessary for the civilization’s survival”. – Wikipedia. org
The level of their science can be seen in a 2,700 year old Assyrian cuneiform tablet which was deciphered in 2008 detailing a cosmic event around 3123 BC which showed their in depth knowledge of mathematics and their ability to record events with precise measurements 2,100 years before the beginning the development of western science during the Renaissance period in Europe.
This Chaldean Astro-Theology which I propose was greatly influenced by a series of cataclysmic cosmic events that occurred at the time of Babylon and Gobekli Tepe 13,500 years ago and continued through our ancient past due to our solar system has a companion brown dwarf star called Planet X. This star has a 5,000 year elliptical orbit around our solar system that is beyond the Kuiper Belt. In this theory Planet X doesn’t give off much light and collects a large amounts of solar dust from our sun which accumulates around its atmosphere during most of its orbit around the solar system. However, as it gets closer to our sun this dust cloud is blown away by the solar wind which allows it to become visible.
(Note: While its detection would be difficult for astronomer it is not impossible. Even though it’s early detection needs to be observed at the south pole due to its current elliptical path through our solar system, it is believed this information is being suppressed and has been detected through infrared telescopes. I present additional evidence of climate change during these cataclysmic events in my previous blog Velikovsky, Climate Change and Planet X. Michael Talbot explains his theory of the Saturn Myth in his video “Symbols of a Alien Sky“).
It is interesting that the current Chaldean flag uses one of these symbols which Talbot calls the cosmic wheel. His theory proposes that the events witnessed by the ancients were caused by the sun’s electrical interactions between planet X, Mars, Venus and the Earth which is why the cosmic wheel uses a star like imagery with waves of energy coming out of it. The picture below shows some examples of this ancient iconography of the cosmic wheel.
Ancient Anza-Borrego Blue Cave Sun Symbols
In the picture below the Phoenician – Canaanites Astro-Theology uses the same cosmic wheel which they called “El” or in Akkadian “Belus” which was deified as the father of mankind and shown as the winged sun disk at the top of the picture. The moon symbol in his hand is from the moon God “Sin” in Akkadian or “Nanna” in Sumerian. Moon worship and the science of astronomy has also been associated to Abraham’s ancestors birthplace Ur of Kasdim or Camarina.
“It was the sacred city of the moon god and the name “Camarina” is thought to be related to the Arabic word for moon qamar. The identification with Ur Kaśdim accords with the view that Abraham’s ancestors may have been moon-worshippers, an idea based on the possibility that the name of Abraham’s father Terah is related to the Hebrew root for moon (y-r-h)….
In addition to the moon shaped object, in the picture above, the Phoenician priest who is representing El with his horned headdress is facing his consort Asherah who holds a pole with the top shaped like a snake and on the bottom is a pitcher of water. The object was called an Asherah Pole which the goddess Asherah or Astarte has been associated with the planet Venus which represents the light of illumination. This association with celestial objects was also related to the priesthood interest in astronomy and astrology.
The name of the Assyrian moon god Su’en/Sîn is usually spelled as DEN.ZU.. He is commonly designated as En-zu, which means “lord of wisdom” …… The “wisdom” personified by the moon-god is likewise an expression of the science of astronomy or the practice of astrology, in which the observation of the moon’s phases is an important factor.” – Wikipedia.org
In one of the few surviving examples of Phoenician writing called the “Sanchuniathon” there is mentioned of the worship El related to the planet Saturn (Planet X),
“…It was a custom of the ancients in great crises of danger for the rulers of a city or nation, in order to avert the common ruin, to give up the most beloved of their children for sacrifice as a ransom to the avenging daemons; and those who were thus given up were sacrificed with mystic rites. Cronus then, whom the Phoenicians call Elus, who was king of the country and subsequently, after his decease, was deified as the star Saturn….” Philo of Byblos – Greek Translator
In the Chaldean Oracles of Zoraster, it was written,
“The Chaldæans call the God (Dionysus or Bacchus) Iao in the Phœnician tongue (instead of the intelligible light), and he is often called Sabaoth, signifying that he is above the seven poles, that is the Demiurgus. – Lyd. de Mens. 83.—Tay.
The controversial historical writer Acharya S wrote in her book, “Suns of God”,
“The semite “Yava” or Iao was likewise “Sabazio, Sabaoth or Sabbat, the god of the Planet Saturn, who also known as Dionysus…”
The Astro-Theology of the Phoenician pantheon was not only based upon the Saturn Myth but recording of actually cosmic events in the sky were used to predict its effects on humanity. For example, the recording of the asteroid event in 3,123 BC could have marked a reference point because, in only one thousand five hundred and twenty-seven years later it is speculated that one of the largest volcanic eruptions on Earth occurred on the island of Thera which caused the destruction of several settlements on the island including an tsunami that destroyed an major Minoan city on the island of Crete between 1642 BC – 1540 BC.
(Note: Volcanic activity on Earth increases as Planet X enters its closes orbit around our sun due to the increased electrical activity between these celestial objects. Planet X’s last close orbit was around 1200 BC including bringing a cycle of comets every 1600 years. These events don’t occur simultaneously but can be spread apart from tens to hundreds of years due to the chaotic nature of debris being attracted from the Kuiper Belt by Planet X).
It is interesting that Thera’s volcanic eruption and the biblical date of the Exodus around 1550 BC were around the same time period. Velikosvsky the author of “Worlds in Collision” proposed the six plagues of Egypt described in the Exodus were observations of cosmic events in the sky by the ancients during this time period when Planet X was approaching our solar system. (note: I disagree with Velikosvsky chronology that dates the Exodus in 1450 BC)
Michael Heiser, an expert in Sumerian language noted about an astronomical event recorded about Nibiru who Zecharia Sitchen the author of the 12th Planet believed was Planet X,
“I think the “root idea” of the nibiru word group and its forms as meaning something with respect to “crossing” is clear….” – michaelshieser.com
While Heiser didn’t believe Nibiru was a planet, according to his research, an cuneiform tablet called the MUL.APIN dated around 1000 BC there is an astronomical event recorded in which Nibiru is mentioned;
“the red star which stands in the south after the gods the night [the stars] have been finish, dividing the sky in half, this star is Nibiru, (i.e., Marduk)” – michaelshieser.com
The Nibiru (red star) event in the sky as described in MUL.APIN could have marked a “crossing point” in Planet X’s orbit that signaled it was moving away from our solar system which could have marked the ending of this cataclysmic era which began six hundred years earlier in 1600 BC with the eruption of the island of Thera and culminated in the sudden Collapse of the Bronze Age around 1200 BC. This also included a severe drought in the eastern Mediterranean and the Heka 3 eruption in Iceland dated around 1159 that is listed in volcano index as a 5 which probably cooled the northern hemisphere for several years.
This era also involved the mysterious appearance of a group only known as the Sea People who helped rearrange the political and economic dynamics in the region by destroying major cities and shipping ports in the Middle East. This period is steep in mystery and for the next three hundred years (1100 – 800 BC) was called the Greek Dark Ages.
“Syrian sites previously showed evidence of trade links with Mesopotamia (Assyria and Babylonia), Egypt and the Aegean in the Late Bronze Age….a letter by the king is preserved on one of the clay tablets found baked in the conflagration of the destruction of the city. Ammurapi stresses the seriousness of the crisis faced by many Levantine states from invasion by the advancing Sea Peoples …
My father, behold, the enemy’s ships came (here); my cities(?) were burned, and they did evil things in my country. Does not my father know that all my troops and chariots(?) are in the Land of Hatti, and all my ships are in the Land of Lukka?…Thus, the country is abandoned to itself. May my father know it: the seven ships of the enemy that came here inflicted much damage upon us. “ – Wikipedia.org
The advent of the Sea People arrival and the widespread destruction of eastern Mediterranean islands and cities along the coast led to the emergence of the Phrygians in Anatolia and the Arameans in Syria who were later taken over by the Greeks which ushered in the beginning of Western civilization when Alexander the Great in 333 BC defeated them. However, I believe this group was associated with the Mycenaeans and the Phoenicians whose two major cities, Sidon and Tyre survive these attacks during the Greek Dark ages which led the way for the development of its greatest city, Carthage (814 BC – 146 BC). It became a major power in the Mediterranean and was barely conquered by the Romans in 146 BC in the Third Punic War. However, you can see in the pictures below the use of strategic locations, design and their use of state of the art technology in construction and ship building used at Carthage rivaled the Greeks and Romans.
Even though in the Bible we are told that the Canaanites in Southern Levant were displaced by the Israelites from the Exodus, the archaeological evidence suggests,
“While the Hebrew Bible contrasts the Canaanites ethnically from the Ancient Israelites, modern scholars Jonathan Tubb and Mark Smith have theorized the kingdoms of Israel and Judah to be a subset of Canaanite culture, based on their archaeological and linguistic interpretations.” – Wikipedia.org
Thus, the whole Levant region was dominated by the Phoenicians and Egyptians who could of had ancient alliances to the Sea People that were possible descendants of the northern Amorites who had migrated into Western Anatolia from the Armenian Plateau including the Aegean Islands such as Crete. The ability of the Phoenician’s high priest to track Planet X could have been used to plan and coordinate their attacks during this chaotic period in the solar system.
The Sea People,
“…. are thought to have been a confederacy of seafaring raiders who could have possibly originated from either western Anatolia or southern Europe, specifically a region of the Aegean Sea, who sailed around the eastern Mediterranean and invaded Anatolia, Syria, Canaan, Cyprus, and Egypt toward the end of the Bronze Age. However, the actual identity of the Sea Peoples has remained enigmatic and modern scholars have only the scattered records of ancient civilizations and archaeological analysis to inform them.” – Wikipedia.org
In the Egyptian record, they are called the Sherden,
“are one of several groups of “Sea Peoples” who appear in fragmentary historical records (Egyptian inscriptions) for the Mediterranean region in the second millennium B.C.; little is known about them. On reliefs they are shown carrying a round shield and a long thrusting Naue II type sword. They are shown wearing a complicated armour corselet of overlapping bands of either leather or metal, and a horned helmet surmounted with a balled spike at the top. “ – Wikipedia.org
(Note: The horns and ball spike on the top of their helmet could have been identifying them as followers of “Bel” or “El” from the ancient religion of the Amorites and later the Phoenician – Caananites.)
There are even broader theories on the Phoenician/Sea People culture such as, Buckminster Fuller who speculated they were related to the Venetians of Italy, the Vikings and later to the British Empire all based upon their dominance of trade by shipping which he called the water people.
“While historians place prime emphasis on the Roman legions as establishing the power of the Roman Empire, it was in fact the development of ships and the overseas line of supply upon which its power was built—by transporting those legions and keeping them supplied. ..Also in Italy—in the northeastern corner—is Venice, the headquarters of the water-people. The Phoenicians—phonetically the Venetians—had their south Mediterranean headquarters in Carthage in northern Africa. In their western Mediterranean and Atlantic venturings the Phoenicians became the Veekings. The Phoenicians—Venetians—in their ships voyaged around the whole coast of Italy and sent in their people to each castello, one by one. The Venetians had an unlimited line of supply, and the people inside each castello did not. The people inside were starved out. Thus, all of the regional masters of the people in Italy hated the Venetians-Phoenicians-Veekings who were able to do this.” Buckminster Fuller – Critical Path 1981
The eastern Mediterranean including what was known as the Anatolia area archaeologist have found a universal use of the archetypes of the Moon and the Bull which were in continuous use throughout the Mediterranean at various times throughout the ages. These icons as seen in the previous picture of the Phoenician king with the two horn crown, the Vikings, the Minoans and the Cretan empire have used variations of these symbols.
Including Neolithic sites such as, Çatalhöyük (7500 BC – 5700 BC) with evidence of bull worship.
These same symbols are still being used today.